Declare Multiple Variables in a Single Line in JavaScript

By James L.

The most common way to declare multiple variables in JavaScript is to declare each variable individually on its own line.

For example:

let x = 1;
let y = 2;
let z = 3;

However, there are times when you may want to group related variables together to provide a clear context of their usage. This is where declaring multiple variables on one line can be handy.

In JavaScript, there are several ways to declare multiple variables in a single line.

In this blog post, we will discuss the following methods:

  1. Using comma separator
  2. Using destructuring assignment with arrays and objects

Using comma separator

To declare multiple variables in JavaScript, you can use the var, let or const keyword followed by a comma-separated list of variable names, each initialized with corresponding values

For example:

var x = 5, y = 10, z = 15;


let x = 5, y = 10, z = 15;


const x = 5, y = 10, z = 15;

Avoid using var unless you absolutely have to, such as when supporting old browsers. This is because var variables can be redeclared and reassigned anywhere in your code, which can lead to unexpected behavior.

Do keep in mind that variables declared with the const keyword cannot be reassigned later in JavaScript. This means that their value cannot be changed once it has been initialized.

You can also declare multiple variables of different data types in a single line.

For example:

let name = "James Bond", age = 37, isWanted = true;

If you do not know the value of variables at the time of declaration then you can declare multiple variables using var or let keyword and assign their values later as follows:

let x, y, z;
// Assign values to the variables later
x = 5;
y = 10;
z = 15;

However, you cannot use const keyword to declare multiple variables in one line and assign their values later.

This is because each variable created with const keyword must be initialized with a value at the time of declaration.

For example, this is not allowed:

const x, y; // this will result in a Syntax error
x = 5;
y = 10;

Using destructuring assignment with arrays and objects

Another way to assign multiple variables in JavaScript is to use the destructuring assignment, which allows you to unpack values from arrays or properties from objects into distinct variables.

For example:

// Destructuring assignment with array
let [x, y, z] = [5, 10, 15];
// x = 5, y = 10, z = 15

// Destructuring assignment with object
let {name, age, gender} = {name: "James", age: 37, gender: "male"];
// name = "James", age = 37, gender = "male"

Destructuring assignment makes sense when you have an array or object and want to extract its values to variables.

For example:

const arr = [1, 2, 3];

// Destructuring assignment with array
const [x, y, z] = arr;

const obj = { a: 1, b: 2, c: 3 };

// Destructuring assignment with object 
const { a, b, c } = obj;


In general, it is best to declare each variable on a separate line, with its own assignment statement. This makes your code more readable and easier to maintain.

However, there are cases where it may be convenient to declare multiple variables on one line, such as when you are grouping related together, or when you are extracting values from an object or array using destructuring assignment.

Use single line multiple variable assignment sparingly.